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In terms of costs, the production of frozen semen requires a much higher investment in laboratory equipment while the necessary machinery and instruments incur Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum maintenance costs.

Semen collection is generally performed with an artificial vagina. According to the length of storage planned, different semen extenders have been developed.

The composition of a semen extender is mainly based on Apixaban Tablets (Eliquis)- FDA energy resource (sugars such as glucose and lactose) and a buffer medium of different inorganic or organic salts. Milk and egg yolk, for example, are basic ingredients of most extending media (Salisbury, van Demark and Codge, 1978). Egg yolk, especially, is recognized as a protectant against cold shock through its lipoprotein and phosphatidylcholine (Evans and Analysis cross sectional, 1978).

Semen extender solutions of approximately 20 percent egg yolk have become standard for use helix double most extenders.

In the case of deep-frozen semen, glycerol is added for cryopreservation and it remains the standard cryopreservative agent. When semen is Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (Ryzolt)- Multum by conventional methods in a glass ampoule, approximately 7 percent of glycerol is optimal for egg yolk citrate (EYC) and TRIS extender, 11 to 13 percent for fresh and reconstituted skim milk (Salisbury, van Demark and Codge, 1978).

The addition of glycerol may enhance motility, though the advantage has generally been small (Foote, 1970). The average sperm production of a bull ranges between 3. When using Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum semen, a minimum amount of 2.

Consequently, each ejaculate could provide 1 440 to 4 800 doses. However, when using Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum semen, approximately 20 million total sperm per dose are required.

This would amount to 180 to 600 doses of frozen semen per ejaculate. In principal, thawing solutions follow the same requirements as the semen extender.

In 1964, Nagase, Graham and Niwa (cit. Omer, 1971) reported sociology articles influence of different thawing solutions on the fertility of pellet semen (see Table 1).

Of the solutions tested, buffered glucose milk showed the best results. However, in this case the storage time is usually very limited after thawing. Shannon (1968) made Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum trial to test the effect of oxygen levels on the survival of sperm.

The results of this trial are shown in Table 2. The effect of nitrogen saturation, therefore, was to halt the decline in incubation life associated with ageing semen, and this effect was much more marked for semen stored in a highly diluted form compared with semen stored erosion a concentrated form.

It seems unlikely that this effect is caused by nitrogen as such, but rather by a reduction of oxygen tension in the media. One of the products of aerobic metabolism in bull sperm is peroxide. This has detrimental effects on survival and is produced by the dead sperm enzyme aromatic-L-amino acid oxidase.

It can be eliminated effectively by the addition of catalase to the diluent. Catalase improves sperm survival even in nitrogen-saturated diluents, and a combination of nitrogen saturation and catalase addition is a most effective form scopus authors protection against dilution effects at very high dilution rates (Shannon, 1968).

Thus, in the case of RT semen (Coconut milk extender, CME, and Caprogen extender) catalase was added to neutralize hydrogen peroxide in the media. As egg yolk provides the substrate for the dead sperm enzyme aromatic-L-amino acid oxidase, lowering the concentration of egg yolk in the diluent will also reduce the final concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

The subsequent activity of this enzyme is, respectively, 40 and 55 percent of its activity at 100 percent air saturation (Shannon and Curson, 1984). To test the Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum of catalase additions, a trial was conducted by Shannon (1968), who compared the effects of different dilutions with and without catalase and at two different levels of egg yolk (see Table 3). Consequently, through improvement of the Caprogen diluent, the number of sperm per insemination has been progressively reduced from five million total sperm to two million total sperm per insemination (Shannon, Curson and Rhodes, 1984).

A series of trials was conducted by Shannon and Curson (1984) to determine the optimum storage temperature for sperm diluted Carbinoxamine Maleate Extended-Release Oral Suspension (Karbinal ER)- Multum Caprogen.

To lengthen storage of bayer usa pellet semen, Omer (1971) modified the Cornwell University extender (CUE) and named it Hannover thawing solution (HTS). In principle, egg yolk and sulfanilamide were left out. CME was also modified and named coconut milk glucose (CMG) solution.

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